Jun 17, 2012

Apache performance tuning: security (II)

This is the second part of the article Apache performance tuning: security (I).

Disable DNS reverse

Apache has a special directive, HostnameLookups, that if it is set on, the web server will always try to resolve the IP address for each connection. This situation adds an unnecessary overload to the system, because if you need to know the names of the machines involved, you can use the logresolve tool later.

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
...
HostnameLookups Off
...

Unnecessary information provided by Apache

Disable the information introduced by Apache about its version and the kind of operating system on where it is running, both HTTP response headers from the server and error messages.

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
...
ServerTokens Prod
ServerSignature Off
...

Customize error messages

By using the ErrorDocument directive, you can pick out which error message should be showed the client when a particular error takes place.

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
...
ErrorDocument 404 "Error 404 !!!"
ErrorDocument 500 /error_500.html

Limit HTTP access methods

The HTTP protocol defines eight different methods: GET, POST, CONNECT, etc. You can use the Limit directive in order to restrict the effect of the access controls to the aforementioned HTTP methods, for instance avoiding that one of this methods works on a directory or virtual host.

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
...
<Limit POST>
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all
</Limit>
...

The preceding configuration will not allow to upload any file to the server, returning a 403 Forbidden error if you try it.

Set the right permissions to the Apache binary

Every user who is not the owner or does not belong to the Apache group, cannot access the Apache executable file.

[root@localhost ~]# chown o-rwx /usr/sbin/httpd

Remove the welcome message

The welcome message is a web page which is displayed to the user when no index.html document exists in the DocumentRoot of the server, and the indexation is disabled (Options -Indexes).

[root@localhost ~]# rm /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf

Perform a security analysis through Nikto

Nikto is an open source web server scanner (developed in Perl) which carries out comprehensive tests against web servers for multiple items, including around 6400 potentially dangerous files/CGIs, checks for outdated versions of over 1200 servers, and version specific problems on over 270 servers. It also verifies for server configuration items such as the presence of multiple index files, HTTP server options, and will attempt to identify installed web servers and software.

[root@localhost ~]# wget --no-check-certificate https://cirt.net/nikto/nikto-2.1.4.tar.gz

[root@localhost ~]# tar xvzf nikto-2.1.4.tar.gz ; cd nikto-2.1.4

[root@localhost nikto-2.1.4]# ./nikto.pl -host localhost
- ***** SSL support not available (see docs for SSL install) *****
- Nikto v2.1.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Target IP:          127.0.0.1
+ Target Hostname:    localhost
+ Target Port:        80
+ Start Time:         2012-05-32 22:16:13
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Server: Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS)
+ Apache/2.2.15 appears to be outdated (current is at least Apache/2.2.17). Apache 1.3.42 (final release) and 2.0.64 are also current.
+ Allowed HTTP Methods: GET, HEAD, POST, OPTIONS, TRACE 
+ OSVDB-877: HTTP TRACE method is active, suggesting the host is vulnerable to XST
+ OSVDB-3268: /icons/: Directory indexing found.
+ OSVDB-3233: /icons/README: Apache default file found.
+ 6448 items checked: 1 error(s) and 5 item(s) reported on remote host
+ End Time:           2012-05-32 22:16:39 (26 seconds)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 1 host(s) tested

Nikto also has other useful option that you can take a look at. In addition, you can run Nikto with the "-update" option, so as to update databases and plugins from CIRT.net.

[root@localhost nikto-2.1.4]# ./nikto.pl -update


No comments:

Post a Comment

Post a Comment